first_imgMukesh Ambani, the chairman of India’s Reliance Industries has emerged as the richest Indian with a net worth of $18.6 billion, according to the latest annual list of the world’s richest people by Forbes magazine.Ambani is followed by ArcelorMittal’s Lakhmi Mittal with a net worth of $16.7 billion. In global rankings, however, Ambani stands at 40th position, while Mittal ranks 52.The latest list includes a record of 1,645 billionaires with a total net worth of $6.4 trillion up from 1,426, according to a report by Reuters.Bill Gates has returned to the top on the list of the world’s richest people, with a net worth of $76 billion. The Microsoft Corporation co-founder reclaimed the top spot after four-years break, toppling Mexico’s telecommunications mogul Carlos Slim Helu, who has emerged as the second richest man on Earth this time, with $72 billion.Amancio Ortega, the Spanish founder of clothing conglomerate Inditex SA, which also includes the Zara fashion chain, came to the third place with $64 billion.On the fourth place is Warren Buffett, who runs Berkshire Hathaway Inc, and has close partnership with Gates. He had the net worth of $58.2 billion.Oracle Corp’s chief Larry Ellison managed to grab the fifth spot at $48 billion.From among the list of the billionaires, just over 10 percent were female, with 172 women compared with 138 a year earlier.The richest Woman on Earth is Walmart Stores Inc heiress Chrity Walton, and is in the ninth place, overall with $36.7 billion.Next among the woman billionaires’ is France’s Liliane Bettencourt, who earned much from her cosmetics company, L’Oreal SA. She has $34.5 billion and finds position 11 on the list.Google’s founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin are in 17th and 19th position with $32.3 billion and $31.8 billion respectively, while Amazon’s Jeff Bezos stood between them at $32 billion.Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, 29, managed to stand at 21st position with $28.5 billion.last_img

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first_img The European Central Bank has decided against an increase in the pace of the asset purchase programme, Mario Draghi announced at a press conference on 3 December.Although the ECB will keep its asset purchasing programme at €60bn (£43bn, $65bn) a month, it has extended it by six months. The quantitative easing package will now run until at least March 2017. Let me make this clear. We are doing more, because it works, not because it fails, the ECB president told reporters.As expected, the deposit interest rate was decreased by the policy makers from -0.2% to -0.3%, while the main refinancing rate will remain unchanged at 0.05%. The monetary decisions are aimed at boosting the Eurozone economy and lifting the inflation rate.Mario Draghi has bought the Eurozone precious time by extending the ECBs €60 billion-a-month bond-buying programme until March 2017, Institute of Directors chief economist James Sproule commented. This is a stimulus package which the block clearly needs. On its own, however, money from the central bank will do little to address the Eurozones underlying rigidity which has led to its chronic growth problems.No expansion to QE. So much for the ECB going over and above expectations. Had a feeling he had set the bar too high. EURUSD rallying again— Joshua Mahony (@JMahony_IG) December 3, 2015Oh dear! If QE not working now, extending wont help now.— Mike van Dulken (@Accendo_Mike) December 3, 2015ECB action – less than expected – good for UK exports 72 cents to the £ – 70 cents to £ this morning— David Buik (@truemagic68) December 3, 2015 More to follow…. Closelast_img

first_imgLogos of BGB (R) and BSFA four-day long director general-level border conference between the Border Guard Bangladesh (BGB) and Border Security Force (BSF) will begin at a hotel in Jashore on Sunday, reports UNB.Various issues including smuggling of narcotics, firearms, arms and ammunition trafficking, killing and detention of Bangladeshi nationals in border, illegal border crossing, building border fence, BGB-BSF joint petrol and increasing mutual trust of the two forces will be prioritised in the meeting, according to a press release.The 15-member BGB delegation will be headed by its regional commander of the north-western region additional director general Abu Taher Md Ibrahim.Officials from home ministry, foreign affairs ministry and narcotics control department have also been included in the team.On the other hand, an 11-member Indian delegation, led by BSF Inspector General (IG) Yogesh Bahadur Khurania, will attend the conference.Officials from BSF North Bengal, Guwahati, India’s foreign ministry and narcotics control department will also attend the conference.last_img

first_img Particles trajectories (a) in experiments above an illuminated dust bed are consistent with those (b) in gas flow simulations. In both cases, gas quickly flows upward in the center illuminated (red) area, and falls downward more slowly on the sides. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. The scientists think that thermal creep could play a significant role in transporting gas and dust on Mars. In such a scenario, the Sun would heat the top layers of the soil everywhere except in the shadows, where the soil would be cooler. In these shadowed places, gas molecules would be soaked up into pores in the soil. Then the gas molecules would flow through the pores underground and be pumped up and erupt out of a heated part of the surface. To test the possibility of thermal creep occurring at conditions similar to those on Mars, the researchers carried out experiments that involved dropping a basaltic dust sample from the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. The dust is enclosed in a vacuum chamber with 4 mbar air pressure, and its being dropped from the tower greatly reduces the force of gravity in order to simulate the conditions on Mars. While the dust sample is falling, the lid is opened, and the dust is illuminated and heated with a red laser. The laser causes a temperature gradient that pumps the dust particles upward at a velocity of about 10 cm/sec, and then the dust particles move downward at about 1 cm/sec. The trajectories that the scientists observed in these experiments are similar to the scientists’ simulated trajectories of gas flow. However, as the scientists calculated, the average particle velocity on Mars would be lower, about 1.6 cm/sec. The lower velocity is due in part to a smaller temperature gradient than in the experiments.Since buried ice exists under the surface of Mars, one of the most intriguing implications of this study is that the thermal creep effect may explain how underground water vapor can be transported up to Mars’ surface. Since gas flow due to thermal creep has a higher velocity than other mechanisms previously considered, such as diffusion, thermal creep could be a dominant transport mechanism for water vapor across large parts of the martian soil. No analogue of this type of planet-wide pump exists on Earth. In fact, the scientists think that Mars is the only body in the Solar System on which such large-scale, continuous pumping can naturally occur. If it does indeed occur as theorized, the pumping might serve as a dominant mechanism for transporting water vapor across Mars’ surface.The scientists, Caroline de Beule, et al., at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Duisburg, Germany, have published their paper on the surface of Mars as a planetary gas pump in a recent issue of Nature Physics.”The idea of the martian soil acting as a planetary gas pump surprised us indeed,” de Beule told Phys.org. “We found this effect by accident when we studied light-induced dust eruptions under microgravity. As we saw eroded particles moving down to the surface again without thermal convection, we concluded that there must be a gas flow into and—even more important—through the soil.”So the greatest significance of our work is the detection of a gas flow which is not only above the martian soil, but through it. Until now, only diffusion has been considered as a transport mechanism of, for example, water vapor through the soil and therefore as an interaction between the regolith and the atmosphere. We showed now that there is a directed transport mechanism that is even more efficient, which leads to a gas flow and can for example drag water vapor along with it.”All of this is possible due to Mars’ low surface pressure. Although Mars and the Earth have a lot in common, one characteristic of Mars that is different is its very low surface pressure of an average of 6 mbar, which is less than 1% of the surface pressure on Earth. The atmosphere on Mars consists mostly of carbon dioxide, and this surface pressure means that the carbon dioxide molecules have a mean free path (that is, the average distance between successive collisions with each other) of 10 μm. (Phys.org) —The surface of Mars is full of activity, with dust storms, dust devils, and drifting dunes in constant motion. Scientists suspect that similarly rich activity may exist underneath the surface, even though it has never been seen. Now in a new study, scientists have found that Mars’ low-pressure atmosphere and porous soil provide the perfect conditions for the planet’s entire surface to act as a giant gas pump, quickly cycling gas and dust particles a few centimeters above and below the soil. Citation: Mars may act as a giant planetary pump (2013, December 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-mars-giant-planetary.html Importantly, the sizes of both the dust particles and the pores in the martian soil are also on the order of 10 μm. Under these conditions—when the mean free path is comparable to particle size and pore size—an effect called thermal creep can occur. When one side of the pore is warmer than the other side, the pore acts as an efficient pump and transports gas from its cold side to its warm side. Schematic diagram of the drop tower experiment. Basaltic dust is illuminated with a red laser as the entire device falls from the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Explore further “Beside implications for the cycle of dust and the cycle of carbon dioxide, the greatest application of our work is a big step in understanding the global cycle of water on Mars—which is of course linked to the other two cycles,” de Beule said. “For example, the rate of water vapor transport through the dust surface on Mars determines the timescale of the existence of ice in the subsurface.”Due to the fact that Mars might have been habitable a few billion years ago, the current annual cycle of water vapor reflects the present and past behavior of water and is therefore a key interest concerning possible environments for past life on Mars.”The researchers added that there are many other interesting aspects of these results, which they plan to further investigate in the future.”Our future plans are to study the gas flow through porous material, analyzing compositional effects on the efficiency, like the porosity of the dust or the grain sizes,” de Beule said. “Finding the right conditions for Mars, the gas flow perhaps might reach even a meter below the surface. In addition, the flow of gas through porous material in a low-pressure environment might not only be considered for Mars, but for example on other bodies in protoplanetary disks, where a porous body is exposed to the light of the sun, and a gas flow through the illuminated surface parts can influence the rotation and trajectory. As can be seen, the list of potential applications is very long, and we are excited to investigate the details of this effect.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Caroline de Beule, et al. “The martian soil as a planetary gas pump.” Nature Physics. DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2821 Journal information: Nature Physics © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. The natural soil pump on Mars: Underground gas flows from the cool deeper layers to the warm Sun-heated surface due to thermal creep. At shadowed places on the surface, gas is soaked up into the soil, travels underground, and is pumped up again to the heated surface. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Mars: What lies beneathlast_img

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