first_img Particles trajectories (a) in experiments above an illuminated dust bed are consistent with those (b) in gas flow simulations. In both cases, gas quickly flows upward in the center illuminated (red) area, and falls downward more slowly on the sides. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. The scientists think that thermal creep could play a significant role in transporting gas and dust on Mars. In such a scenario, the Sun would heat the top layers of the soil everywhere except in the shadows, where the soil would be cooler. In these shadowed places, gas molecules would be soaked up into pores in the soil. Then the gas molecules would flow through the pores underground and be pumped up and erupt out of a heated part of the surface. To test the possibility of thermal creep occurring at conditions similar to those on Mars, the researchers carried out experiments that involved dropping a basaltic dust sample from the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. The dust is enclosed in a vacuum chamber with 4 mbar air pressure, and its being dropped from the tower greatly reduces the force of gravity in order to simulate the conditions on Mars. While the dust sample is falling, the lid is opened, and the dust is illuminated and heated with a red laser. The laser causes a temperature gradient that pumps the dust particles upward at a velocity of about 10 cm/sec, and then the dust particles move downward at about 1 cm/sec. The trajectories that the scientists observed in these experiments are similar to the scientists’ simulated trajectories of gas flow. However, as the scientists calculated, the average particle velocity on Mars would be lower, about 1.6 cm/sec. The lower velocity is due in part to a smaller temperature gradient than in the experiments.Since buried ice exists under the surface of Mars, one of the most intriguing implications of this study is that the thermal creep effect may explain how underground water vapor can be transported up to Mars’ surface. Since gas flow due to thermal creep has a higher velocity than other mechanisms previously considered, such as diffusion, thermal creep could be a dominant transport mechanism for water vapor across large parts of the martian soil. No analogue of this type of planet-wide pump exists on Earth. In fact, the scientists think that Mars is the only body in the Solar System on which such large-scale, continuous pumping can naturally occur. If it does indeed occur as theorized, the pumping might serve as a dominant mechanism for transporting water vapor across Mars’ surface.The scientists, Caroline de Beule, et al., at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Duisburg, Germany, have published their paper on the surface of Mars as a planetary gas pump in a recent issue of Nature Physics.”The idea of the martian soil acting as a planetary gas pump surprised us indeed,” de Beule told Phys.org. “We found this effect by accident when we studied light-induced dust eruptions under microgravity. As we saw eroded particles moving down to the surface again without thermal convection, we concluded that there must be a gas flow into and—even more important—through the soil.”So the greatest significance of our work is the detection of a gas flow which is not only above the martian soil, but through it. Until now, only diffusion has been considered as a transport mechanism of, for example, water vapor through the soil and therefore as an interaction between the regolith and the atmosphere. We showed now that there is a directed transport mechanism that is even more efficient, which leads to a gas flow and can for example drag water vapor along with it.”All of this is possible due to Mars’ low surface pressure. Although Mars and the Earth have a lot in common, one characteristic of Mars that is different is its very low surface pressure of an average of 6 mbar, which is less than 1% of the surface pressure on Earth. The atmosphere on Mars consists mostly of carbon dioxide, and this surface pressure means that the carbon dioxide molecules have a mean free path (that is, the average distance between successive collisions with each other) of 10 μm. (Phys.org) —The surface of Mars is full of activity, with dust storms, dust devils, and drifting dunes in constant motion. Scientists suspect that similarly rich activity may exist underneath the surface, even though it has never been seen. Now in a new study, scientists have found that Mars’ low-pressure atmosphere and porous soil provide the perfect conditions for the planet’s entire surface to act as a giant gas pump, quickly cycling gas and dust particles a few centimeters above and below the soil. Citation: Mars may act as a giant planetary pump (2013, December 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-mars-giant-planetary.html Importantly, the sizes of both the dust particles and the pores in the martian soil are also on the order of 10 μm. Under these conditions—when the mean free path is comparable to particle size and pore size—an effect called thermal creep can occur. When one side of the pore is warmer than the other side, the pore acts as an efficient pump and transports gas from its cold side to its warm side. Schematic diagram of the drop tower experiment. Basaltic dust is illuminated with a red laser as the entire device falls from the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Explore further “Beside implications for the cycle of dust and the cycle of carbon dioxide, the greatest application of our work is a big step in understanding the global cycle of water on Mars—which is of course linked to the other two cycles,” de Beule said. “For example, the rate of water vapor transport through the dust surface on Mars determines the timescale of the existence of ice in the subsurface.”Due to the fact that Mars might have been habitable a few billion years ago, the current annual cycle of water vapor reflects the present and past behavior of water and is therefore a key interest concerning possible environments for past life on Mars.”The researchers added that there are many other interesting aspects of these results, which they plan to further investigate in the future.”Our future plans are to study the gas flow through porous material, analyzing compositional effects on the efficiency, like the porosity of the dust or the grain sizes,” de Beule said. “Finding the right conditions for Mars, the gas flow perhaps might reach even a meter below the surface. In addition, the flow of gas through porous material in a low-pressure environment might not only be considered for Mars, but for example on other bodies in protoplanetary disks, where a porous body is exposed to the light of the sun, and a gas flow through the illuminated surface parts can influence the rotation and trajectory. As can be seen, the list of potential applications is very long, and we are excited to investigate the details of this effect.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Caroline de Beule, et al. “The martian soil as a planetary gas pump.” Nature Physics. DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2821 Journal information: Nature Physics © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. The natural soil pump on Mars: Underground gas flows from the cool deeper layers to the warm Sun-heated surface due to thermal creep. At shadowed places on the surface, gas is soaked up into the soil, travels underground, and is pumped up again to the heated surface. Credit: de Beule, et al. ©2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Mars: What lies beneathlast_img

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first_imgHome of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  First Heatwave Expected Next Week © ArtCenter College of Design© ArtCenter College of DesignMaking, and more recently digital making, has become a critical link to teaching and learning in schools and communities worldwide. ArtCenter College of Design has published a report outlining how to integrate digital making with traditional maker spaces to support designers as they invent the future. Spearheaded by the College’s Media Design Practices (MDP) graduate department, the Creating Maker Spaces in Schools of Art and Design report surveys maker spaces in and outside of education and aims to guide educational leaders wrestling with issues of efficiency and agility in today’s robust creative economy. On Tuesday, June 21, ArtCenter’s Casey Anderson presented the report during the Higher Ed Maker Symposium organized by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as part of National Week of Making, June 17 through 23, 2016.Making is at the core of most art and design schools where creative practitioners build prototypes, models and simulations to invent new products, services and experiences. Bold experimentation is deeply woven into the fabric of these institutions.“Today’s challenge is how to seamlessly integrate new forms of digital making with diverse curricula, complement existing facilities and be self-sustaining financially,” said Elise Co, MDP and Interaction Design faculty and co-author of the study with Ian Besler, MDP adjunct faculty and alumnus.“We’re intimately aware of the need to balance resource allocation with access to cutting-edge technology while providing the best education possible,” said Anne Burdick, chair of the MDP Department. “We feel strongly that our discoveries will be useful as schools explore how digital making relates to specific emerging areas of art and design.“Our goal was to create a practical guide for our peers in art and design higher education to capitalize on evolving technology and make the most effective decisions when planning improvements to campus facilities,” said Burdick.“To create ‘next-level’ making—which means to envision innovative maker spaces and systems beyond what is currently in play, we found that studio courses dedicated to the design of maker spaces, as well as open calls for proposals and institutional research initiatives are the best way to leverage the collective brain of this native community of makers,” said Co.With the knowledge shared in the report, schools will be prepared to develop maker spaces scaled to their community’s specific needs, from a single cart to an institution-wide network of specialized making “hubs.”Key findings:· Maker spaces allow technology to be accessible to non-experts, not just physically, but functionally. Training and peer-to-peer learning are key to how these spaces function even outside an academic setting. They’re designed for a range of users from novice to expert.· Technology plays different roles in different types of making—production, prototyping, experimentation—and in communicating working knowledge to collaborators.· Maker spaces are ecosystems that depend as much on community, staffing and programming as technology and equipment.· Maker spaces are best developed iteratively and grown organically to allow them to evolve based on real patterns of usage and visioning grounded in experience.· Beyond the “starter” maker space that is fast becoming a basic requirement, there are real design challenges and opportunities to define next-level Maker Spaces such as systems and networks of multiple venues and labs for highly specialized making.Report Credits:· Executive producer: Anne Burdick, chair, Media Design Practices Department· Project lead and co-author: Elise Co, faculty member, Media Design Practices Department· Researcher and co-author: Ian Besler, faculty member, Media Design Practices Department· Researcher and production assistant: Renée Reizman, coordinator, Media Design Practices Department· Graphic designer: Jessica LeeAbout Media Design Practices:Media Design Practices at ArtCenter College of Design offers an interdisciplinary design MFAgrounded in media and technology through a curriculum that features two intentionally divergenttracks. Each track—Lab and Field—prepares students to work in emerging roles and contexts fordesign. Lab students explore the cultural impact and possible futures of new ideas fromtechnology, science and culture. Field students mix ethnography, design and technology toaddress social issues in a developing world context. More at mediadesignpractices.net.About ArtCenter:Founded in 1930 and located in Pasadena, ArtCenter College of Design is a global leader in art and design education. ArtCenter offers 11 undergraduate and seven graduate degrees in a wide variety of industrial design disciplines as well as visual and applied arts. In addition to its top-ranked academic programs, the College also serves members of the Greater Los Angeles region through a highly regarded series of year-round educational programs for all ages and levels of experience. Renowned for both its ties to industry and its social impact initiatives, ArtCenter is the first design school to receive the United Nations’ Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) status. Throughout the College’s long and storied history, ArtCenter alumni have had a profound impact on popular culture, the way we live and important issues in our society. Community News Make a comment Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,PCC – EducationVirtual Schools PasadenaDarrell Done EducationHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes More Cool Stuff Top of the News Community Newscenter_img Herbeauty15 Countries Where Men Have Difficulties Finding A WifeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Strong Female TV Characters Who Deserve To Have A SpinoffHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Signs That Your Ex May Still Want You BackHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyYou Can’t Go Past Our Healthy Quick RecipesHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyCostume That Makes Actresses Beneath Practically UnrecognizableHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThis Trend Looks Kind Of Cool!HerbeautyHerbeauty EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Education ArtCenter College of Design Publishes Report on How to Build Next-Level Maker Spaces New research highlights importance of digital making to achieve ideal learning and propel innovation By TERI BOND Published on Monday, June 27, 2016 | 5:08 pm Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. 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first_img Email the author Remember America’s heroes on Memorial Day Sponsored Content Plans underway for historic Pike County celebration Print Article Of the renewal energy sources, Smith said, solar power, maybe if the cost of the panels and installation can be brought down.“But it just doesn’t make any sense, it’s just too expensive,” he said.During the business session, the council adopted a resolution to apply to ADECA for an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) to install LED lights on S.A. Graham Blvd, Clayton Street, Veterans Blvd. Galloway Road, 6th Avenue and Lott Blvd. The total cost of the project, including engineering, administrative costs and labor will be $81,481. The cost to the city will be $11,531, which is 14 percent of the total cost of the project.The council agreed to participate in the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program with options of intent for community safe houses and a ditch drainage improvements on Highway 231.Britt Thomas, city manager, reported a purchase of playground equipment via auction in the amount of $6,037. The council agreed to install the equipment at Galloway Park.The Brundidge City Council meets at 4 p.m. the first and third Tuesdays of each month at Brundidge City Hall. The meetings are open to the public. By Jaine Treadwell You Might Like Final superintendent candidate interviews Alexis Seymore says education is her passion. The superintendent of the Dawson Springs (Ky) School System was the final candidate… read more Published 11:00 pm Tuesday, June 21, 2011 By The Penny Hoarder Gary Smith, PowerSouth president and CEO, addressed the Brundidge City Council Tuesday to bring the members up to date on issues facing the utility industry now and long term.Smith said about 55 percent of electricity is generated by coal and, as coal usage is being curtailed, the utility industry is faced with challenges as it looks forward.“If coal comes off the table and it’s replaced with natural gas, the price of natural gas will go up,” Smith said. “Coal prices are going up and they are closing in on the price of natural gas. The efficiency rate of natural gas is better than that of coal and that has implications for the power industry.”center_img Next UpIncreased usage of natural gas plus coal exports to China and Europe will put a strain on the demand for natural gas.Diversity is essential to any business and the utility industry is no exception, Smith said.With coal and natural gas concerns for the industry, Smith said nuclear power is an attractive and viable option. Council hears energy concerns The Penny Hoarder Issues “Urgent” Alert: 6 Companies… Book Nook to reopen Troy falls to No. 13 Clemson Pike County Sheriff’s Office offering community child ID kits Latest Stories Smith said there is no way that there is enough natural gas to take the world into perpetuity and nuclear energy is the most viable choice of available energy sources.When asked about solar energy as a cost savings options for individual home owners,Smith discounted solar power as a cost savings option.“Solar power is interesting and has the best chance of working of any of the renewable energy sources,” he said. However, he said that installing and maintaining the solar panels would cost homeowners about $500 a month “to cut their power bill in half.” Around the WebDoctor: Do This Immediately if You Have Diabetes (Watch)Health VideosIf You Have Ringing Ears Do This Immediately (Ends Tinnitus)Healthier LivingHave an Enlarged Prostate? Urologist Reveals: Do This Immediately (Watch)Healthier LivingWomen Only: Stretch This Muscle to Stop Bladder Leakage (Watch)Healthier LivingRemoving Moles & Skin Tags Has Never Been This EasyEssential HealthMost 10 Rarest Skins for FortniteTCGThe content you see here is paid for by the advertiser or content provider whose link you click on, and is recommended to you by Revcontent. As the leading platform for native advertising and content recommendation, Revcontent uses interest based targeting to select content that we think will be of particular interest to you. We encourage you to view your opt out options in Revcontent’s Privacy PolicyWant your content to appear on sites like this?Increase Your Engagement Now!Want to report this publisher’s content as misinformation?Submit a ReportGot it, thanks!Remove Content Link?Please choose a reason below:Fake NewsMisleadingNot InterestedOffensiveRepetitiveSubmitCancellast_img

first_imgiStock/Thinkstock(LOGANSPORT, Ind.) — At least four people have died after getting trapped in a house fire near Logansport, Indiana.The fire ignited at the residence just before 2 a.m. local time on Wednesday in a rural area of Cass County, about three miles outside the city.The bodies of two adults and two children were found in different parts of the home, Cass County authorities announced Wednesday afternoon.Two adults managed to escape as the flames engulfed the home and were taken to a local hospital, according to Indiana State Police Sgt. Tony Slocum.Family members and the adults who escaped indicated that the bodies of two more people may be in the rubble, authorities said.The remote location of the house posed a challenge for firefighters trying to access the nearest water source to douse the flames, Slocum said. The early morning blaze has now been fully extinguished.The home was engulfed in flames by the time two Cass County deputies arrived on the scene, authorities said. One of the deputies tried to gain access to the second story of the home by climbing onto the first floor roof, but he was pushed back by smoke and flames.The roof and second story of the home collapsed as a result of the blaze, according to the sheriff’s office.The deceased have not been identified.“Right now, we have one confirmed fatality,” Slocum told reporters at a press conference Wednesday. “We’re obviously in the stages of trying to get into the structure and see if there are more bodies to be recovered. We anticipate that to be the case but we haven’t verified that.”The total number of missing individuals in the house fire has not been confirmed, according to Indiana State Fire Marshal Jim Greeson.“There’s so much destruction here,” Greeson told reporters, adding that it’s unclear whether the residence was equipped with smoke detectors.The Cass County Sheriff’s Office previously told ABC News that six people — four children and two adults — were killed in the fire.The cause of the blaze remains under investigation and the Indiana State Fire Marshal’s office is leading the probe, which is being treated as a possible criminal case.“We’re going to consider it a criminal investigation until we find out otherwise,” Slocum told reporters. “We’re very early in this investigation.” Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.last_img

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